New Age Medical Clinic | (973) 313-0028 | 90 Millburn Ave., Suite 201 Millburn NJ 07041
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Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent.
Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals, which start chain reactions that damage cells.
Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. As a result, antioxidants are often reducing agents such as thiols, ascorbic acid or polyphenols.
Although oxidation reactions are crucial for life, they can also be damaging; hence, plants and animals maintain complex systems of multiple types of antioxidants, such as glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes, causes oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells.
As oxidative stress might be an important part of many human diseases, the use of antioxidants in pharmacology is intensively studied, particularly as treatments for stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is unknown whether oxidative stress is the cause or the consequence of disease. Antioxidants are also widely used as ingredients in dietary supplements in the hope of maintaining health and preventing diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease.
or "vitamin C" is a monosaccharide antioxidant found in both animals
and plants. As one of the enzymes needed to make ascorbic acid has been lost
by mutation during human evolution, it must be obtained from the diet and is
a vitamin. Most other animals are able to produce this compound in their
bodies and do not require it in their diets.
Sources: parsley, broccoli, bell pepper, strawberries, oranges, lemon juice, papaya, cauliflower, kale, mustard greens, and Brussels sprouts.
Glutathione is a cysteine-containing peptide found in most forms of aerobic life. It is not required in the diet and is instead synthesized in cells from its constituent amino acids. Glutathione has antioxidant properties since the thiol group in its cysteine moiety is a reducing agent and can be reversibly oxidized and reduced. In cells, glutathione is maintained in the reduced form by the enzyme glutathione reductase and in turn reduces other metabolites and enzyme systems, such as ascorbate in the glutathione-ascorbate cycle, glutathione peroxidases and glutaredoxins, as well as reacting directly with oxidants. Due to its high concentration and its central role in maintaining the cell's redox state, glutathione is one of the most important cellular antioxidants. In some organisms glutathione is replaced by other thiols, such as by mycothiol in the Actinomycetes, or by trypanothione in the Kinetoplastids.
Sources: Supplements usually are ineffective. Vitamin C, vitamin B6, riboflavin, and selenium are required in the manufacture of glutathione, and adequate dietary consumption of foods rich in (or supplementation with) these vitamins and minerals can help the body to optimize glutathione production.
Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that can easiy cross cell membranes and the blood-brain barrier. Unlike other antioxidants, melatonin does not undergo redox cycling, which is the ability of a molecule to undergo repeated reduction and oxidation. Redox cycling may allow other antioxidants (such as vitamin C) to act as pro-oxidants and promote free radical formation. Melatonin, once oxidized, cannot be reduced to its former state because it forms several stable end-products upon reacting with free radicals. Therefore, it has been referred to as a terminal (or suicidal) antioxidant.
Sources: Huang-qin, St. John’s wort, flower, Fever few, green leaf, Fever few, gold leaf, St. John’s wort, leaf, White mustard seed, Black mustard seed, Wolf berry seed, Fenugreek seed, Sunflower seed, Fennel seed, Alfalfa seed, Green cardamom seed, Tart cherry fruit (Montmorency), Flax seed, Anise seed, Coriander seed, Celery seed, Poppy seed, Milk thistle seed, Tart cherry fruit (Balaton).
Tocopherols and tocotrienols (Vitamin E) is the collective name for a set of eight related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant properties. Of these, a-tocopherol has been most studied as it has the highest bioavailability, with the body preferentially absorbing and metabolising this form.
It has been claimed that the a-tocopherol form is the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, and that it protects membranes from oxidation by reacting with lipid radicals produced in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction.
This removes the free radical intermediates and prevents the propagation reaction from continuing. This reaction produces oxidised a-tocopheroxyl radicals that can be recycled back to the active reduced form through reduction by other antioxidants, such as ascorbate, retinol or ubiquinol. This is in line with findings showing that a-tocopherol, but not water-soluble antioxidants, efficiently protects glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4)-deficient cells from cell death. GPx4 is the only known enzyme that efficiently reduces lipid-hydroperoxides within biological membranes.
However, the roles and importance of the various forms of vitamin E are presently unclear, and it has even been suggested that the most important function of a-tocopherol is as a signaling molecule, with this molecule having no significant role in antioxidant metabolism. The functions of the other forms of vitamin E are even less well-understood, although ?-tocopherol is a nucleophile that may react with electrophilic mutagens, and tocotrienols may be important in protecting neurons from damage.
Sources: see section on vitamin E
Carotenoids are organic pigments that are naturally occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria.
There are over 600 known carotenoids; they are split into two classes, xanthophylls (which contain oxygen) and carotenes (which are purely hydrocarbons, and contain no oxygen). Carotenoids in general absorb blue light. They serve two key roles in plants and algae: they absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis, and they protect chlorophyll from photodamage. In humans, carotenoids such as ß-carotene are a precursor to vitamin A, a pigment essential for good vision, and carotenoids can also act as antioxidants.
People consuming diets rich in carotenoids from natural foods, such as fruits and vegetables, are healthier and have lower mortality from a number of chronic illnesses. Avocado fruit and oil significantly enhanced the subjects' absorption of all carotenoids tested (a-carotene, ß-carotene, lycopene, and lutein)
Sources: carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, kale, collard greens, and tomatoes.
Coenzyme Q10 (also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 – pronounced like "ko-cue-ten" –, CoQ, Q10, or simply Q) is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group, and 10 refers to the isoprenyl chemical subunits.
This oil-soluble vitamin-like substance is present in most eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, generating energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body’s energy is generated this way. Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements—such as the heart and the liver—have the highest CoQ10 concentrations.
Because of its ability to transfer electrons and therefore act as an antioxidant, Coenzyme Q is used as a dietary supplement.
Sources: fresh sardines and mackerel, the heart, liver and meat of beef, lamb and pork along with eggs. Spinach, broccoli, peanuts, wheat germ and whole grains - the amount is significantly smaller than that found in meats.
Alpha lipoic acid is a fatty acid found naturally inside every cell in the body. It's needed by the body to produce the energy for our body's normal functions. Alpha lipoic acid converts glucose (blood sugar) into energy.
Alpha lipoic acid is also an antioxidant, a substance that neutralizes potentially harmful chemicals called free radicals. What makes alpha lipoic acid unique is that it functions in water and fat, unlike the more common antioxidants vitamins C and E, and it appears to be able to recycle antioxidants such as vitamin C and glutathione after they have been used up. Glutathione is an important antioxidant that helps the body eliminate potentially harmful substances. Alpha lipoic acid increases the formation of glutathione.
Alpha lipoic acid is made by the body and can be found in very small amounts in foods such as spinach, broccoli, peas, Brewer's yeast, brussel sprouts, rice bran, and organ meats. Alpha lipoic acid supplements are available in capsule form at health food stores, some drugstores, and online.
Alpha Lipoic acid is a natural antioxidant that effectively neutralizes a variety of free radicals, including oxygen radicals and ionized metals.
Alpha Lipoic acid increases the tissue level of glutathione, which is the major intracellular antioxidant. Glutathione is reduced in a variety of diseases and with aging. Glutathione levels are also reduced during moderate to strenuous exercise.
Alpha Lipoic acid interacts synergistically with other antioxidants. It regenerates both Vitamin C and Vitamin E, and it helps to maintain the proper ratio of reduced to oxidized Coenzyme Q10 in the mitochondria.
Alpha Lipoic acid functions as a cofactor (coenzyme) in enzyme complexes responsible for glucose utilization and energy metabolism.
Alpha Lipoic acid is effective as an adjunct in the treatment of diabetes. It has been used widely for over 20 years in Germany to treat a wide array of pathologies, including those related to glucose intolerance. Alpha Lipoic acid protects the mitochondria. Mitochondria decay is associated with aging.
Alpha Lipoic acid holds promise as a safe and effective approach for the treatment of other pathologies associated with lowered antioxidant status and/or increased levels of oxidative stress.
We provide IV, SQ and IM antioxidants to minimize free radical damage.
New Age Medical Clinic | (973) 313-0028 | 90 Millburn Ave., Suite 201 Millburn NJ 07041